Azure Automation

Remove-AzureRMVMBackup function added to AZSBTools PowerShell module


Remove-AzureRMVMBackup function has been added to the AZSBTools PowerShell module to simplify the task of locating and deleting Azure VM backups. The function also disables backup for the provided VM. This function works with both ARM and classic ASM VMs

This is helpful to do before deleting a retired Azure VM.

Remove-AzureRMVMBackup

This function will disable backup of the provided VM. It will also delete existing backups (recovery points – files) of the VM.

Example:

$ParameterList = @{
    LoginName = 'sam@dmain.com'
    SubscriptionName = 'my subscription name'
    VMName = 'Widget3VM'
}
Remove-AzureRMVMBackup @ParameterList

 


To use the AZSBTools PowerShell module which is available in the PowerShell Gallery, you need PowerShell 5. To view your PowerShell version, in an elevated PowerShell ISE window type

$PSVersionTable

To download and install the latest version of AZSBTools from the PowerShell Gallery and its dependencies, type

Set-PSRepository -Name PSGallery -InstallationPolicy Trusted

To trust the Microsoft PowerShell Gallery repository, then

Install-Module AZSBTools,AZ -Force -AllowClobber

AZSBTools contains functions that depend on AZ modules, and they’re typically installed together.

To load the AZSBTools, and AZ modules type:

Import-Module AZSBTools,AZ -DisableNameChecking

To view a list of cmdlets/functions in AZSBTools, type

Get-Command -Module AZSBTools

To view the built-in help of one of the AZSBTools functions/cmdlets, type

help <function/cmdlet name> -show

such as

help New-SBAZServicePrincipal -show

Advertisements

Validate-NameResolution cmdlet added to AZSBTools PowerShell module


In the course of IAAS VM migrations from on-premises to Azure, the VM IP address changes. In Windows VM we typically invoke a command like

ipconfig /registerdns

or

Register-DNSClient

which is part of the DnsClient PowerShell module.

The Validate-NameResolution cmdlet part of the AZSBTools module, queries each DNS server in the current AD to make sure that all DCs in the current AD forest resolve a given computer name to the same IP. This helps to diagnose instances where DNS partition replication is not functioning properly, where some DC’s resolve a given computer name to the old on-premises IP while others resolve the same name to the new Azure IP.

This cmdlet takes one required parameter -ComputerName which accepts one or more computer names

Example: Validate-NameResolution -ComputerName ‘myTestPC’

The cmdlet outputs interim information to the console like:

In addition, it also returns PSCustom Objects, one for each resolved IP address with the following properties: ComputerName, ResolvesTo, and DNSServer similar to:


To use the AZSBTools PowerShell module which is available in the PowerShell Gallery, you need PowerShell 5. To view your PowerShell version, in an elevated PowerShell ISE window type

$PSVersionTable

To download and install the latest version of AZSBTools from the PowerShell Gallery and its dependencies, type

Set-PSRepository -Name PSGallery -InstallationPolicy Trusted 
Install-Module AZSBTools,AzureRM -Force

AZSBTools contains functions that depend on AzureRM module, and they’re typically installed together.

To load the AZSBTools and AzureRM modules type:

Import-Module AZSBTools,AzureRM -DisableNameChecking

To view a list of cmdlets/functions in SB-Tools, type

Get-Command -Module AZSBTools

To view the built-in help of one of the AZSBTools functions/cmdlets, type

help <function/cmdlet name> -show

such as

help New-SBAZServicePrincipal -show


Azure Cloud Shell


In a prior post I went over getting started with Azure automation using Azure Automation Account. Another way to run PowerShell scripts against an Azure subscription is to use Azure Cloud Shell. I think of Azure Automation Account as PaaS PowerShell whereas Azure Cloud Shell is more like IaaS PowerShell (more like PowerShell web access running on an Azure container).

Access

Azure Cloud Shell can be access from https://shell.azure.com/ or by clicking the Cloud Shell icon in the Azure Portal

Features

We have most of the common PowerShell features such as tab completion. Initially Get-Module shows:

Copy/paste works, although keyboard shortcuts like CTRL-C and CTRL-V do not.

Unlike Azure Automation Account, we can install and import PS modules directly from the shell:

We get drive y: as an Azure file share for persistent storage, since these PS sessions are not..

We have access to more than PowerShell in this shell, such as Azure CLI and Python, which I choose to completely ignore in this post, and focus on PowerShell only 🙂

The Azure: drive provides access to the available subscriptions and their objects:

So, we can list VMs under a given subscription by simply iterating the objects under azure:\subscription_name\VirtualMachines !!

You can tell that the Azure: drive provider is using the required AzureRM cmadlets to fetch the requested objects. In this example, it’s calling Get-AzureRmVM cmdlet

We can upload files to the y: drive Azure file share directly from the Azure portal:

 


Azure Automation – getting started


Azure Automation allows Azure administrators to run PowerShell and other scripts against an Azure subscription. They provide several benefits versus running the same scripts from the user desktop computer including:

  • Scripts run in Azure and are not dependent on the end-user desktop
  • Scripts are highly available by design.
  • Scheduling is a built-in feature
  • Authentication is streamlined for both classic ASM and current ARM resources

To get started with Azure Automation;

  1. Create an Azure Automation account
  2. Install needed PowerShell modules
  3. Create, run, test, schedule scripts

Create an Azure Automation account

In the current portal, Create Resource > Monitoring and Management > Automation > Create

In the ‘Add Automation Account’ blade enter/select a name for the Automation Account, Azure Subscription, Resource Group, and Azure Location

Azure will take a few minutes to create the automation account and associated objects.

We can now run scripts against the Azure subscription selected above. Here are some examples:

Create a test script

In the Automation Account blade, click Runbooks

Click ‘Add a runbook’ link on the top to create a new runbook of type PowerShell

Azure creates the runbook/script, and opens the ‘Edit PowerShell Runbook’ blade

Type in the desired command, click Save, then ‘Test pane’

In the ‘Test’ blade, click ‘Start’. Azure will queue and execute the script

Notes:

  • This is not like the PowerShell ISE. There’s no auto-completion for one thing.
  • If Azure comes across a bad command, it will try to execute THE ENTIRE SCRIPT repeatedly, and is likely to get stuck.
  • This shell does not support user interaction. So, any cmdlet that would typically require a user confirmation/interaction of any type will fail. For example, Install-Module cmdlet will fail since it requires user approval/interaction to install PowerShellGet.

Install needed modules

To see available modules click ‘Modules’ in the Automation Account blade

Click ‘Browse Gallery’ on top and search for the desired module

These modules come for the Microsoft PowerShell Gallery.

Click on the desired module, view its functions, and click Import to import it to this automation shell

Now that the module is imported, we can use it in scripting in this particular automation shell:

 

 


Expand-Json cmdlet to expand custom PowerShell object in a more readable format added to AZSBTools PowerShell module


Microsoft Azure REST API version 2 (ARM – Azure Resource Manager) takes input request body and returns output in JSON format. Consequently, Azure PowerShell cmdelts and Azure CLI tend to use similar JSON objects for input, also known as ARM Templates.

For example, using this PowerShell cmdlet:

Get-AzureRmResource -ResourceId /subscriptions/xxxxx/resourceGroups

where xxxxx is your Azure subscription Id, may return output similar to:

Name : prod-mgt
ResourceId : /subscriptions/xxxxx/resourceGroups/prod-mgt
ResourceGroupName : prod-mgt
Location : eastus
SubscriptionId : xxxxx
Properties : @{provisioningState=Succeeded}

Name : TestAuto1
ResourceId : /subscriptions/xxxxx/resourceGroups/TestAuto1
ResourceGroupName : TestAuto1
Location : westeurope
SubscriptionId : xxxxx
Properties : @{provisioningState=Succeeded}

What the PowerShell cmdlet did is to send a GET request to the Azure Management API that looks partially like:

https://management.azure.com/subscriptions/xxxxx/resourceGroups?api-version=2014-04-01

Which returned JSON output similar to:

{
  "value": [
    {
      "id": "/subscriptions/xxxxx/resourceGroups/prod-mgt",
      "name": "prod-mgt",
      "location": "eastus",
      "properties": {
        "provisioningState": "Succeeded"
      }
    },
    {
      "id": "/subscriptions/xxxxx/resourceGroups/TestAuto1",
      "name": TestAuto1
      "location": "westeurope",
      "properties": {
        "provisioningState": "Succeeded"
      }
    }
  ]
}

In the course of working with Azure ARM templates, such as this template to create a Storage Account:

{
  "$schema": "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2015-01-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
  "contentVersion": "1.0.0.0",
  "parameters": {
    "storageAccountType": {
      "type": "string",
      "defaultValue": "Standard_LRS",
      "allowedValues": [
        "Standard_LRS",
        "Standard_GRS",
        "Standard_ZRS",
        "Premium_LRS"
      ],
     "metadata": {
       "description": "Storage Account type"
     }
   }
  },
  "variables": {
    "storageAccountName": "[concat(uniquestring(resourceGroup().id), 'standardsa')]"
  },
  "resources": [
    {
      "type": "Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts",
      "name": "[variables('storageAccountName')]",
      "apiVersion": "2016-01-01",
      "location": "[resourceGroup().location]",
      "sku": {
        "name": "[parameters('storageAccountType')]"
      },
      "kind": "Storage", 
      "properties": {
      }
    }
  ],
  "outputs": {
    "storageAccountName": {
      "type": "string",
      "value": "[variables('storageAccountName')]"
    }
  }
}

It may not be very clear what are the objects in the template and their hierarchy. Using the ConvertFrom-Json cmdlet of the Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility module produces a PS custom object with display similar to:

Get-Content E:\Scripts\ARMTemplates\Storage1.json | ConvertFrom-Json

$schema : https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2015-01-01/deploymentTemplate.json#
contentVersion : 1.0.0.0
parameters : @{storageAccountType=}
variables : @{storageAccountName=[concat(uniquestring(resourceGroup().id), ‘standardsa’)]}
resources : {@{type=Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts; name=[variables(‘storageAccountName’)]; apiVersion=2016-01-01; location=[resourceGroup().location]; sku=; kind=Storage; properties=}}
outputs : @{storageAccountName=}

This is better but it doesn’t show some of the information in the source JSON file/ARM template. The new Expand-Json cmdlet further expands the ConvertFrom-Json output:

Get-Content E:\Scripts\ARMTemplates\Storage1.json | ConvertFrom-Json | Expand-JSON


To use the AZSBTools PowerShell module which is available in the PowerShell Gallery, you need PowerShell 5. To view your PowerShell version, in an elevated PowerShell ISE window type

$PSVersionTable

To download and install the latest version of AZSBTools from the PowerShell Gallery and its dependencies, type

Install-Module POSH-SSH,SB-Tools,AZSBTools,AzureRM -Force

AZSBTools contains functions that depend on POSH-SSH, SB-Tools, and AzureRM modules, and they’re typically installed together.

To load the POSH-SSH, SB-Tools, AZSBTools, and AzureRM modules type:

Import-Module POSH-SSH,SB-Tools,AZSBTools,AzureRM -DisableNameChecking

To view a list of cmdlets/functions in SB-Tools, type

Get-Command -Module AZSBTools

To view the built-in help of one of the AZSBTools functions/cmdlets, type

help <function/cmdlet name> -show

such as

help New-SBAZServicePrincipal -show